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2016-08-22 07:03:40

An hour of exercise a day may compensate for an 'office lifestyle' The study, which looked at previous research involving more than a million people, delivered a "bad news, good news" analysis. The bad news is that sitting for long periods may increase the chance of dying earlier. The good news is that doing at least an hour of moderately intense activity (such as cycling or brisk walking) each day may eliminate that risk. The people in the study who were least active and sat for more than eight hours a day were 59% more likely to have died during the study follow up than people who exercised most and sat for Ray Ban RB4177 Sunglasses Shiny Black Frame Deep Green Polarized
Ray Ban RB4177 Sunglasses Shiny Black Frame Deep Green Polarized less than four hours a day. Sitting for longer than four hours a day increased the chance of death for everyone not in the highest activity category. However, people who did the most physical activity did not have an increased risk of death, regardless of how many hours a day they spent sitting. The current activity advice for adults is to do at least 30 minutes of physical activity a day. Increasing that to 60 minutes may be a good idea if you do have a "9 5 office lifestyle". The study was carried out by researchers from institutions in many different countries, including the Norwegian School of Sports Sciences, University of Cambridge, University of Queensland, Oslo University Hospital, Swinburne University of Technology in Melbourne, Sydney University and Harvard Medical School. It received no direct funding. The study was published in the peer reviewed journal The Lancet on an open access basis so it is free to read online (although you need to register). Some UK media outlets took the study very literally. The Daily Mail tells readers "adults who sit down for at least eight hours every day must do at least an hour's daily exercise to undo all the harm." The study does not prove that exercise will "undo the harm" of sedentary behaviour. It also ignores the study findings that people who were moderately active for about half an hour to an hour had only a slightly raised risk of death associated with sitting for longer periods. While the advice to exercise more is sound, people might think there's no point in exercising for less than an hour a day, and so give up altogether. It is very much the case that "every little helps" when it comes to exercise. Experts in sports and exercise medicine were mostly welcoming of the study, describing it as "excellent quality" and "very interesting". However, one expert in evidence based medicine warned of the study's limitations and that it had not sufficiently controlled for factors such as socioeconomic status. This study was a systematic review and meta analysis of prospective cohort studies. This is a good way to get a better idea of the relative importance of sitting and physical activity in terms of length of life. However, observational studies cannot tell us whether certain factors (sitting time or physical activity) directly cause another (chances of death). They can only tell us that the factors may be linked. Researchers searched the literature for studies that included information on sitting time, exercise and mortality. They added two studies that had not been published but which had relevant data. They then pooled the data to look at how the two factors were linked to length of life. They also looked separately at time spent watching television, and at deaths from cardiovascular disease and cancer. By applying a standardised protocol, the researchers were able to make direct comparisons across groups according to specific categories of sitting time (less than four hours a day, four to six hours, six to eight hours, and more than eight) and of physical activity. Physical activity was measured by metabolic equivalent of task (MET) hours a week. MET is a measurement of how much energy the body is likely to consume during specific physical activities. MET levels were divided in four groups: less than 2.5 (equivalent to five minutes a day of moderate intensity physical activity) 16 (25 to 35 minutes a day, as recommended by many guidelines) more than 35.5 (60 to 75 minutes a day) Researchers took the people who did the most physical activity and had the least sitting time as the baseline, and looked to see how more sitting time affected that, for people in the different categories of physical activity. The same calculations were repeated using daily hours of TV viewing time, from less than one to five or more. For people who did the least physical activity, sitting for more than four hours a day was linked to an increased chance of dying during the study. For these people, sitting for eight hours a day or more increased the chances of death by 27% (hazard ratio (HR) 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22 to 1.32), compared to if they'd been sitting four hours a day or less. Compared to people who did the most exercise and sat for less than four hours a day, they had a 59% increased risk of death (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.52 to 1.66). People who were physically active for between half an hour and an hour also had a raised chance of death linked to sitting for eight hours a day compared to four hours a day, of 10% to 12%. But for people who exercised the most, time spent sitting did not increase the risk of death. High levels of physical activity were clearly linked to lower chance of death. People who did the most activity but sat for eight hours or more were less likely to die than those who did the least activity but sat for four hours or less. Television viewing time showed similar results, but in this case even the highest amount of physical activity did not cancel the raised risk of watching five hours or more of television. The least active people had a 44% higher risk of death if they watched five or more hours of television, compared to less than one hour (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.34 to 1.56). Results were similar when the researchers looked at the chances of dying from cardiovascular disease or cancer. This study helps to disentangle the effects of having a sedentary lifestyle and being physically active. Previous studies have had conflicting results, with some saying that sitting for long periods can be counteracted by taking exercise, while others disagreed. The advantage of this study is that it looks at time spent sitting as well as time spent being physically active, and calculates how both are linked to mortality and to each other. The study has many strengths, not least its size. It includes data from 1,005,791 people from 16 studies. This meant they could pool information and make direct comparisons between groups sub divided by sitting time and activity levels, to a higher degree of accuracy than would otherwise have been possible.

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